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                萬聖節的№英文 - 萬聖節簡╉介

                2016-11-18 15:49:04 來源:講歷史 責編:講歷史

                萬聖節的英文名稱是:AllHallow'sDay

                萬聖﹄節前夕:Halloween

                簡介:

                HalloweenisanobservancecelebratedonthenightofOctober31,mostnotablybychildrendressingincostumesandgoingdoor-to-doorcollectingcandy.ItiscelebratedinmuchoftheWesternworld,thoughmostcommonintheUnitedStates,PuertoRico,RepublicofIreland,theUnitedKingdom,Canada,andwithincreasingpopularityinAustraliaandNewZealand.HalloweenoriginatedinIrelandasthepaganCelticharvestfestival,Samhain.Irish,ScotsandotherimmigrantsbroughtolderversionsofthetraditiontoNorthAmericainthe19thcentury.MostotherWesterncountrieshaveembracedHalloweenasapartofAmericanpopcultureinthelate20thcentury.

                ThetermHalloween,anditsolderspellingHallowe'en,isshortenedfromAll-hallow-even,asitistheeveningbefore"AllHallowsDay"(alsoknownas"AllSaints'Day").InIreland,thenamewasAllHallowsEveandthisnameisstillusedbysomeolderpeople.HalloweenwasalsosometimescalledAllSaints'Eve.TheholidaywasadayofreligiousfestivitiesinvariousnorthernEuropeanpagantraditions,untilitwasappropriatedbyChristianmissionariesandgivenaChristianinterpretation.InMexicoNovember1stand2ndarecelebratedasthe"DiadeLosMuertos"DayoftheDead.HalloweenisalsocalledPookyNightinsomepartsofIreland,presumablynamedafterthepúca,amischievousspirit.InAustraliaitissometimesreferredtoas"mischiefnight",bylocals.

                Halloweenissometimesassociatedwiththeoccult.ManyEuropeanculturaltraditionsholdthatHalloweenisoneoftheliminaltimesoftheyearwhenthespiritualworldcanmakecontactwiththephysicalworldandwhenmagicismostpotent(e.g.Catalanmythologyaboutwitches).

                Halloweenisanannualcelebration,butjustwhatisitactuallyacelebrationof?Andhowdidthispeculiarcustomoriginate?Isit,assomeclaim,akindofdemonworship?Orisitjustaharmlessvestigeofsomeancientpaganritual?

                Theworditself,"Halloween,"actuallyhasitsoriginsintheCatholicChurch.ItcomesfromacontractedcorruptionofAllHallowsEve.November1,"AllHollowsDay"(or"AllSaintsDay"),isaCatholicdayofobservanceinhonorofsaints.But,inthe5thcenturyBC,inCelticIreland,summerofficiallyendedonOctober31.TheholidaywascalledSamhain(sow-en),theCelticNewyear.

                Onestorysaysthat,onthatday,thedisembodiedspiritsofallthosewhohaddiedthroughouttheprecedingyearwouldcomebackinsearchoflivingbodiestopossessforthenextyear.Itwasbelievedtobetheironlyhopefortheafterlife.TheCeltsbelievedalllawsofspaceandtimeweresuspendedduringthistime,allowingthespiritworldtointerminglewiththeliving.

                Naturally,thestill-livingdidnotwanttobepossessed.SoonthenightofOctober31,villagerswouldextinguishthefiresintheirhomes,tomakethemcoldandundesirable.Theywouldthendressupinallmannerofghoulishcostumesandnoisilyparadedaroundtheneighborhood,beingasdestructiveaspossibleinordertofrightenawayspiritslookingforbodiestopossess.

                ProbablyabetterexplanationofwhytheCeltsextinguishedtheirfireswasnottodiscouragespiritpossession,butsothatalltheCeltictribescouldrelighttheirfiresfromacommonsource,theDruidicfirethatwaskeptburningintheMiddleofIreland,atUsinach.

                SomeaccountstellofhowtheCeltswouldburnsomeoneatthestakewhowasthoughttohavealreadybeenpossessed,assortofalessontothespirits.OtheraccountsofCeltichistorydebunkthesestoriesasmyth.

                TheRomansadoptedtheCelticpracticesastheirown.ButinthefirstcenturyAD,SamhainwasassimilatedintocelebrationsofsomeoftheotherRomantraditionsthattookplaceinOctober,suchastheirdaytohonorPomona,theRomangoddessoffruitandtrees.ThesymbolofPomonaistheapple,whichmightexplaintheoriginofourmoderntraditionofbobbingforapplesonHalloween.

                Thethrustofthepracticesalsochangedovertimetobecomemoreritualized.Asbeliefinspiritpossessionwaned,thepracticeofdressinguplikehobgoblins,ghosts,andwitchestookonamoreceremonialrole.

                ThecustomofHalloweenwasbroughttoAmericainthe1840'sbyIrishimmigrantsfleeingtheircountry'spotatofamine.Atthattime,thefavoritepranksinNewEnglandincludedtippingoverouthousesandunhingingfencegates.

                Thecustomoftrick-or-treatingisthoughttohaveoriginatednotwiththeIrishCelts,butwithaninth-centuryEuropeancustomcalledsouling.OnNovember2,AllSoulsDay,earlyChristianswouldwalkfromvillagetovillagebeggingfor"soulcakes,"madeoutofsquarepiecesofbreadwithcurrants.Themoresoulcakesthebeggarswouldreceive,themoreprayerstheywouldpromisetosayonbehalfofthedeadrelativesofthedonors.Atthetime,itwasbelievedthatthedeadremainedinlimboforatimeafterdeath,andthatprayer,evenbystrangers,couldexpediteasoul'spassagetoheaven.

                TheJack-o-lanterncustomprobablycomesfromIrishfolklore.Asthetaleistold,amannamedJack,whowasnotoriousasadrunkardandtrickster,trickedSatanintoclimbingatree.Jackthencarvedanimageofacrossinthetree'strunk,trappingthedevilupthetree.Jackmadeadealwiththedevilthat,ifhewouldnevertempthimagain,hewouldpromisetolethimdownthetree.

                Accordingtothefolktale,afterJackdied,hewasdeniedentrancetoHeavenbecauseofhisevilways,buthewasalsodeniedaccesstoHellbecausehehadtrickedthedevil.Instead,thedevilgavehimasingleembertolighthiswaythroughthefrigiddarkness.Theemberwasplacedinsideahollowed-outturniptokeepitglowinglonger.

                TheIrishusedturnipsastheir"Jack'slanterns"originally.ButwhentheimmigrantscametoAmerica,theyfoundthatpumpkinswerefarmoreplentifulthanturnips.SotheJack-O-LanterninAmericawasahollowed-outpumpkin,litwithanember.

                So,althoughsomecultsmayhaveadoptedHalloweenastheirfavorite"holiday,"thedayitselfdidnotgrowoutofevilpractices.ItgrewoutoftheritualsofCeltscelebratinganewyear,andoutofMedievalprayerritualsofEuropeans.Andtoday,evenmanychurcheshaveHalloweenpartiesorpumpkincarvingeventsforthekids.Afterall,thedayitselfisonlyasevilasonecarestomakeit.

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